Meta-Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Adult ADHD reviews the incidence of adult ADHD, impairments of the disorder, and the standard treatment protocol, which uses medication initially (“as the first-line treatment”). Not all adults with ADHD continue, however, respond to medication, and many who do respond still experience continued significant, even impairing symptoms.
The study reviewed research on non-medical treatments which provide skills training, such as organizational, planning and time management, cognitive reappraisal and mindfulness meditation skills. The authors conclude: “Skills-based psychosocial treatments targeting cognitive and behavioral processes for adult ADHD had medium-to-large effects on ADHD symptoms from pre- to posttreatment (e.g., g 1.00 for self-reported ADHD symptoms), with controlled studies showing small-to-medium effects (g .65).” The authors also note, “For effect size estimates for nearly all constructs, however, substantial heterogeneity among effects paints a more complex picture.”
The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 5-15-17
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